Drainage System And Its Significance

Drainage System And Its Significance

Drainage is the disposal of excess water on land (either used or in type of storm water). It must be distinguished from flood management which is the prevention of damage on account of overflow from river. There are two type of system adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and mixed system. In separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household, commercial and industrial waste water and disposes them while a separate sewer collects the storm water and disposes it separately. In the combined system, both the storm water and home water are conveyed through the identical pipe network.

Sanitary sewers should have a self cleansing velocity of (.6-1
m/s). This self cleansing velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes should be positioned at interval of one hundred-120m for the aim of sustaining and servicing of the sewer. It needs to be noted that waste water within the sewer are often transported by gravitational force relatively than mechanical means (pumping) for handy sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; the topography of the area should be well understood.

The storm water flow will be estimated by .278CIA the place C is the coefficient of runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is often acquired from table which is a operate of factors that affect infiltration. From rainfall data I could be estimated.
A could be estimated by using planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map . The waste water from business, commercial facilities and domestic makes use of are often estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the customers' discharges via the use of questionnaire and personal interview. The inhabitants of people and number of industries ought to be noted for this estimation.

The overall steps in structure sewers embrace:

Set up comprehensive map of the world together with road contour, topography and utilities
Drains are shown with a single line with arrows for direction
Manholes are shown with a dot at all its essential locations because the junctions and its intermediate level of one hundred-120m interval
Sewers are design to observe natural topography
Sewers are principally branch network
Sewers or drains are normally located alongside the road
Design approach for sewers is as follows;
Estimate manning constant and select slope
Compute the part factor
Get the very best hydraulic part either rectangle or trapezoid
Check the satisfaction of minimum velocity
Addition of adequate freeboard to avoid overflowing
The disposal of the waste water may very well be treated or not treated. Nonetheless, the remedy is usually by biological method. The disposal of waste water is of immerse necessary for economic growth. The treated or untreated waste could possibly be used as a supply of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow and may very well be used as a source of recharge for ground water.

It's apparent in the cities of the growing international locations that the most of development industries don't take note of all the above mentioned process. As a result storm water follows drains that aren't specified for them or overflows the drains there by inflicting erosions. Alternatively, a number of the storm water are stagnant within the drains there by becoming a breeding place for mosquitoes and toads. This may end in increase of malaria and water related illness within the vicinity. All this is because; most authorities in such cities have not yet understand the essential of drainage systems and the position it performs in social- economic development.

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